Blog 2016 Archive

views from the bench masthead

21/12/16
News on Padeliporfin (WST-11) in Prostate Cancer

A minimal invasive treatment, with fibre optic laser and photo sensitizer WST-11, to treat prostate cancers.

http://uk.reuters.com/article/us-health-cancer-prostate-idUKKBN14916E

Structure can be found on this link

http://www.medkoo.com/products/5720

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19/12/16
News on PTR-36 (ADC3680)

An oral CRTh2 antagonist has a positive phase II clinical trial, but looks for backing to take into phase III. It is not the first CRTh2 antagonist in the clinic and I have not found its chemical structure.

http://www.fiercebiotech.com/biotech/pulmagen-med-passes-phase-2-asthma-test-seeks-partner-for-late-stage-trials?utm_

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14/12/16
News on Fexinidazole

Former clinical candidate dusted off and back under investigation for sleeping sickness, a disease caused by a parasite.

http://www.huffingtonpost.com/entry/els-torreele-sleeping-sickness_us_5833698ce4b099512f845007?

Structure can be found on this link.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fexinidazole

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13/12/16
News on Prostate Cancer Treatments

Feast and famine cycles with Testosterone, on prostate cancer, brings unexpected results. Funding bigger trials is highlighted as an issue: “Our problem is this is not a drug that is owned by a pharmaceutical company; it is generic testosterone.”

http://www.independent.co.uk/news/science/prostate-cancer-sufferer-cured-by-blasting-tumours-with-testosterone-a7450426.html

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12/12/16
Redundancy in the Immune System

When you think you understand a disease mechanism, an unexpected result throws a spanner in the works. This can then lead on to more experiments, that reveal you did not fully understand the full mechanism, due to redundancy in the living system.

http://scienmag.com/immune-systems-workaround-may-explain-heart-disease-in-psoriasis-patients/

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8/12/16
News that some Psychosis is an Immune Disorder

A new idea, with evidence, that some psychosis is actually the immune system targeting the NMDA receptor. A new area which needs investigation; it is known that immune system goes “rogue” in a number of medical conditions.

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/health-38220610

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1/12/16
News on Idelalisib

Insight into the mechanism of action of Idelalisib is reported.

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2016/11/161129084349.htm

Chemical structure can be found on this link

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Idelalisib

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28/11/16
Kill a Superbug with a Predatory bug

Not your usual medicine, to fight an infection. You might, a t a stretch think this approach as cannibalism! Drug resistant superbug gets devoured by Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus.

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/health-38077263

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21/11/16
Bit of Synthesis

Tetrahedron Letters (2016) p 5464-5468. Some interesting work by Tom Baker and co-workers. Synthesis of Ar-SO2-CF2-Ar’ compounds.

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18/11/16
News on Actemra

Actemra is a monoclonal antibody under investigation in giant cell arteritis. Actemra is already used to treat rheumatoid arthritis.

http://uk.reuters.com/article/us-roche-actemra-idUKKBN13809G

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16/11/16
Bit of Synthesis

Tetrahedron (2016) p8022-8030. Some interesting work coupling aryl boronic acids with activated benzyls, by Jianbo Wang and co-workers. As in all new work, examples are all lipophilic and functional group scarce. It will be interesting to see if it can spread to more drug-like chemical space.

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15/11/16
News on Midostaurin

Midostaurin appears to be a pan kinase inhibitor. 570 MW and 1mg/mL aqueous solubility from chemspider.

http://uk.reuters.com/article/us-novartis-aml-idUKKBN1390PK

Structure can be found on this link

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Midostaurin

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14/11/16
News on Vemlidy (Tenofovir alafenamide)

Vemlidy is a new medicine to treat hepatitis B infections.

http://www.fiercepharma.com/pharma/gilead-snags-fda-approval-for-improved-hep-b-drug-vemlidy?utm

Structure can be found on this link

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tenofovir_alafenamide

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11/11/16
Monobodies in Blockade of RAS in Cancer

Until this report, I was unaware of the existence of monobodies. My understanding is that monobodies are proteins, which bind to other proteins to prevent functional complexes forming. As a large protein, I would think these, if developed, would be injectable biological agents.

https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2016-11/uoia-rdw110716.php

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Monobody

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10/11/16
News on Verubecestat

Verubecestat a BACE1 inhibitor, currently in phase III clinical trials, for Alzheimer’s disease. More details of the phase Ib study now published in scientific journal, top line info released 2013.

http://www.fiercebiotech.com/biotech/merck-posts-package-bace1-data-from-alzheimer-s-trials?utm

Structure can be found on this link

http://www.chemspider.com/Chemical-Structure.31399364.html

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7/11/16
News on Ribociclib

FDA fast track for Ribociclib, a cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor, targeting cyclin D1/CDK4 and cyclin D3/CDK6; to treat advanced breast cancer.

http://uk.reuters.com/article/us-novartis-lee-idUKKBN12W31T

Chemical structure can be found on this link

http://www.chemspider.com/Chemical-Structure.30798107.html

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4/11/16
Flufenamic acid in Cancer Treatment?

Flufenamic acid is a COX inhibitor and NSAID. There are conflicting reports on whether widespread use or not (due to GI adverse effects). Here researchers describe its use to remake bladder cancer cells susceptible to platinum therapy again.

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2016/10/161017083711.htm

Structure can be found on these links.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flufenamic_acid

http://www.chemspider.com/Chemical-Structure.3254.html

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2/11/16
4 Pronged Concerted Attack on Cancer

This report tells of a 4 pronged treatment regimen in lab animals that not only eliminates aggressive tumours (3 types were studied) but also maintains a memory in the subject to eradicate a re-inoculation of cancers cells.

http://www.fiercebiotech.com/research/targeting-both-immune-system-branches-could-be-key-for-cancer-immunotherapy?utm

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31/10/16
News on NTRX-07

A preclinical study showing that NTRX-07 may have utility in treating Alzheimer’s Disease. Mechanism of action is reported as anti-inflammatory and boost to regeneration of neurons.

https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2016-10/asoa-eds101816.php

http://www.neurotherapia.com/index.php/our-research

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26/10/16
News on LARTRUVO (olaratumab)

Lartruvo is an antibody to platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFR-a), a therapy for soft tissue sarcoma.

http://www.fiercebiotech.com/biotech/eli-lilly-gains-fda-approval-for-new-sarcoma-med-lartruvo?utm

https://investor.lilly.com/releasedetail.cfm?ReleaseID=994445

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24/10/16
News on LARTRUVO (olaratumab)

Lartruvo is an antibody to platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFR-a).

http://www.fiercebiotech.com/biotech/eli-lilly-gains-fda-approval-for-new-sarcoma-med-lartruvo?utm

https://investor.lilly.com/releasedetail.cfm?ReleaseID=994445

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19/10/16
Summary of an exciting new landscape in Oncology

Summary of output presented at European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO) congress 2016.

http://uk.reuters.com/article/us-health-cancer-immunotherapy-insight-idUKKCN12A1OH

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17/10/16
News on Keytruda

Positive outcomes for lung cancer patients with high levels of PD-L1 biomarker, for Keytruda, an antibody, targeting the PD-1 receptor.

http://uk.reuters.com/article/us-health-cancer-merck-co-idUKKCN12904Q

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14/10/16
News on Ribociclib

Ribociclib is a cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor, targeting CDK 4 &6, for breast cancer.

http://uk.reuters.com/article/us-health-cancer-novartis-idUKKCN128084

Chemical structure can be found on this link.

https://newdrugapprovals.org/2015/10/19/ribociclib/

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12/10/16
News on Cabometyx

Cabometyx is a small molecule kinase inhibitor, under clinical study in metastatic kidney cancer.

http://uk.reuters.com/article/us-health-cancer-exelixis-idUKKCN12A0G2

Chemical structure can be found on this link.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cabozantinib

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10/10/16
News on Nivolumab

Nivolumab, marketed as Opdivo, is a humanized monoclonal, immunoglobulin G4 antibody raised to PD-1. Here positive news in head, neck and kidney cancers.

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/health-37588541

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6/10/16
2016 Nobel Prize for Chemistry

Goes to the nano machines, well the pioneers who first made them – Jean-Pierre Sauvage, Sir Fraser Stoddart and Bernard Feringa who will share the 8m kronor (£727,000) prize for the “design and synthesis of machines on a molecular scale”.

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-37563673
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3/10/16
News on Cosentyx

Cosentyx, an antibody to interleukin 17A, maintains efficacy at 4 years in psoriasis. This is important as according to the article “anti-TNFs, can lose their effectiveness over time”, which are a current therapy.

http://uk.reuters.com/article/us-novartis-psoriasis-cosentyx-idUKKCN1212ZP

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30/9/16
News on AMG-334

AMG-334 is a monoclonal antibody to the calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptor and has completed phase III clinical study in migraine.

http://www.fiercebiotech.com/biotech/amgen-novartis-chalk-up-phiii-migraine-success-to-maintain-lead-over-lilly-teva?utm_

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29/9/16
Have We Got Many Disease Causes Wrong?

Just as early scientists did not realise that viruses and bacteria cause disease; and that DNA is complicated enough to encode an organism. Is our understanding of other diseases about to change similarly, from our emerging knowledge of bacteriophages?

http://www.fiercebiotech.com/research/alzheimer-s-and-other-diseases-could-be-linked-to-contagious-bacteriophages?utm

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27/9/16
Repurposed JAK Inhibitors?

Cancer drug Ruxolitinib, a JAK inhibitor, demonstrates utility in alopecia.

http://www.mirror.co.uk/science/scientists-found-cure-baldness-drug-8917725

Chemical structure can be found on this link:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ruxolitinib

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26/9/16
News on Type 2 Diabetes Control

“Combination of GLP-1 agonist Bydureon and SGLT2 Farxiga” are better at reducing blood sugar leves than dosed alone. Both are AstraZeneca meds.

http://www.fiercepharma.com/marketing/az-glp-1-bydureon-and-sglt2-farxiga-are-better-together-phiii-data-show?utm

Bydureon is a peptide, more information can be found here:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Exenatide

Farxiga is a small molecule, structure can be found here:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dapagliflozin

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23/9/16
News on Ibrance

Ibrance is a kinase inhibitor under investigation in breast cancer.

http://uk.reuters.com/article/us-pfizer-study-cancer-idUKKCN11M18O

Structure can be found here

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Palbociclib

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21/9/16
News on Semaglutide

An injectable GLP-1 agonist molecule to treat type II diabetes.

http://uk.reuters.com/article/us-health-diabetes-novo-nordisk-idUKKCN11M0F6

http://www.fiercebiotech.com/biotech/novo-s-semaglutide-cuts-cv-events-diabetes-plots-2016-filing?utm

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20/9/16
News on BET Inhibitor JQ1

Researchers have found that bromodomain and extraterminal domain (BET) inhibitor, JQ1, acting on cell lines in the lab, can be as effective as anti-PD-L1 antibodies, as a potential therapy for ovarian cancer.

http://www.fiercebiotech.com/research/bet-inhibitor-tamps-down-pd-l1-activity-ovarian-cancer-cells?utm_

Structure of JQ1 can be found here:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/JQ1

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16/9/16
Magnetite cause of Alzheimer’s?

Magnetite, with morphology similar to that coming from “vehicle engine and brakes”, has been identified at elevated levels in the brains of sufferers of Alzheimer’s disease.

http://uk.reuters.com/article/us-science-brain-pollution-idUKKCN11K1PC

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15/9/16
News on Ocrevus (ocrelizumab)

Ocrevus is a monoclonal antibody, raised to CD20, for the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS).

http://www.fiercebiotech.com/biotech/roche-ms-candidate-beats-rebif-latest-phiii-as-2016-fda-decision-awaits?utm

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12/9/16
News on Benralizumab

Injectable antibody Benralizumab, from AstraZeneca, looks good in asthma trial.

http://www.fiercebiotech.com/biotech/astrazeneca-gears-up-for-benralizumab-filing-latest-asthma-data?utm

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8/9/16
Anti-Malarial Identified

Still pre-clinical, mainstream media has got hold of this paper in Nature, by researchers at MIT. Mode of action is reported as inhibition of phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase. Some interesting structures in the supplementary info.

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/health-37284378

http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/vaap/ncurrent/full/nature19804.html

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7/9/16
News for COPD Treatment

The article reports: GSK’s once-daily triple inhaler combines the drugs fluticasone, umeclidinium and vilanterol, in a single fixed dose inhaler.

http://uk.reuters.com/article/uk-gsk-copd-idUKKCN11C1K3

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5/9/16
Further News on Tecentriq

Tecentriq is a monoclonal antibody to PD-L1, being developed by Roche. Some good results of a clinical study in lung cancer, further to bladder cancer reported some 3-4 months ago.

http://www.fiercepharma.com/pharma/roche-s-tecentriq-becomes-contender-new-lung-cancer-data?utm_

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2/9/16
News on Aducanumab

Aducanumab is a human monoclonal antibody, which has been raised to amyloid beta. In clinical trials, it has been shown to clear amyloid beta, both soluble and insoluble from the brain.

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/health-37222863

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1/9/16
News on understanding Colorectal Cancer

High retinoic acid levels, in the gut, appears to be protective of colorectal cancer.

http://www.fiercebiotech.com/research/stanford-researchers-retinoic-acid-inhibits-colorectal-cancer-progression?utm_

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30/8/16
News on Siponimod

Upbeat news on a phase III clinical study of Siponimod in MS.

http://uk.reuters.com/article/us-novartis-siponimod-idUKKCN1100CU

Structure, which includes and oxime, can be found on this link:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Siponimod

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26/8/16
News on AZD3293

AZD3293 begins phase III clinical evaluation. All Alzheimer’s disease clinical trials are long. Even with a fast track review status, the trial itself does not conclude until 2019.

http://www.fiercebiotech.com/biotech/lilly-astrazeneca-nab-fast-track-review-for-bace-inhibitor-azheimer-s?utm

Chemical structure can be found here:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/AZD3293

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25/8/16
Depression – An Immune Disease?

Science is about observation and interpretation. Here patients with rheumatoid arthritis, being treated anti-inflammatories and immune suppressants, were observed to have improved moods. It will be interesting to see how this observation translates, into therapies for sufferers of depression.

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/health-37166293

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24/8/16
Non-Opioid, Opioid Receptor Analgesic

Still at the pre-clinical stage of research, PZM21 has caught the eye of mass media for its potential as a non-addictive analgesic.

http://www.independent.co.uk/news/science/painkiller-perfect-morphine-opium-side-effects-lethal-constipation-addict-pzm21-a7196106.html

Chemical Structure:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PZM21

http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/nature19112.html

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23/8/16
News on Esketamine

Esketamine is the S isomer of Ketamine, currently showing rapid onset in treating “treatment-resistant depression”, where there is imminent risk for suicide.

http://www.fiercebiotech.com/biotech/j-j-bags-a-second-breakthrough-tag-for-planned-depression-blockbuster?utm_

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22/8/16
News on Abaloparatide

Abaloparatide is an injectable biological drug, an analogue of parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP). This report, informs on a positive phase III clinical study, in osteoporosis.

http://www.fiercebiotech.com/biotech/radius-osteoporosis-drug-bests-placebo-phiii-eyes-2017-fda-approval?utm

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19/8/16
News on CRISPR Potential in Sickle Cell

Early research, using CRISPR technology, to maintain a foetal haemoglobin expression. Thus preventing development of Sickle Cell Disease.

https://www.stjude.org/media-resources/news-releases/2016-medicine-science-news/crispr-gene-editing-reveals-new-therapeutic-approach-for-blood-disorders.html

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18/8/16
Huntingdon’s Disease

Some new research, at possible interventions, to treat Huntingdon’s disease. Phosphorylation of a serine residue in the misfolded protein Huntingtin, appears to facilitate the removal/degradation of the rogue protein. The exhibited animal model phenotype, with a phosphorylated serine, is also close to non-disease state.

https://gladstoneinstitutes.newswire.com/news/potential-therapeutic-target-for-huntingtons-disease-13992378

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17/8/16
Circadian Rhythm and Viruses

For those studying viruses, the circadian rhythm of patient, clinical trial volunteer and animal model needs to be taken account of in studying viral infection.

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/health-36782326

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11/8/16
Helium

This is where all the helium has gone.

http://uk.reuters.com/article/uk-england-longestaircraft-idUKKCN10K2GU

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10/8/16
Vaccine for Alzheimer’s?

A possible vaccine for Alzheimer’s disease, targeting both beta amyloid and TAU proteins. From the reports in the mass media, I believe this is still in the research labs. It will be of great interest to see how this pans out in human patients.

http://www.neuro-news.co.uk/news/will-there-soon-be-a-vaccine-for-alzheimers/

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9/8/16
New Class of Compound against the Proteasome of Kinteoplastids

The common disease causing agent in Chagas disease, leishmaniosis and sleeping sickness are all Kinteoplastids. A new class of agent has been identified which is specific to the proteasome of Kinteoplastids

http://uk.reuters.com/article/us-health-parasites-idUKKCN10J1MC

For structure :

http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/vaap/ncurrent/full/nature19339.html

Supplementary info
GNF6702 = N-(4-fluoro-3-(6-(pyridin-2-yl)-[1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidin-2-yl)phenyl)-2,4-dimethyloxazole-5-carboxamide

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8/8/16
News on Fevipiprant

Likely to be a readout on a phase IIa clinical study of Fevipiprant, an antagonist of the prostaglandin D2 receptor (also known as CRTh2 receptor). If this translates to later studies then we are looking at an oral medicine for asthma.

http://www.reuters.com/article/us-health-asthma-novartis-idUSKCN10H075

Chemical Structure can be found on this link:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fevipiprant

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4/8/16
ADAM33 gene in Asthma

Has our understanding of asthma been turned on its head? Could airway remodelling be the cause not the result of the condition?

https://insight.jci.org/articles/view/87632

http://uk.reuters.com/article/us-gsk-johnson-johnson-asthma-idUKKCN1071AJ

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3/8/16
Antibodies to Interleukin 33 (IL-33)

Antibodies to Interleukin 33 are under investigation for treating severe asthma, in the article below. Nucala mentioned in the article is an Interleukin 5 antibody.

http://uk.reuters.com/article/us-gsk-johnson-johnson-asthma-idUKKCN1071AJ

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2/8/16
Titanium Gold Alloy

To quote the article “alloy is the hardest known metallic substance compatible with living tissues”. Proposed usage would be for artificial joints in the body.

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-36855705

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1/8/16
“Vitamin D”

I blogged, earlier this year, on reports of the benefit of vitamin D3, in heart function. Here a new study talks about the merits of “vitamin D supplements” to prevent disease. There is a link in the webpage to the 300page original study.

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/health-36846894

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29/7/16
Review of Kinase Inhibitors by AZ

The news on Tagrisso was a reminder of a 2 day Kinase conference, earlier this year, where Jason Kettle presented the history of kinase research at AstraZeneca. The same work is now published, as a review article, which I commend those interested to read. “Drug Discovery Today” June 2016 [DOI: 10.1016/j.drudis.2016.06.007]

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28/7/16
Lugdunin – a New Antibiotic

Mainstream media is all over this story due to the source of finding Lugdunin. To me what is interesting is the chemical structure, which can be viewed in the original article below, in one of the images. Currently no API synthesis, nor mode of action known, so not yet at clinical studies. Though phase I should be straightforward for first time in man!

https://www.uni-tuebingen.de/en/newsfullview-landingpage/article/im-menschlichen-koerper-schlummert-ein-potenzieller-lebensretter.html

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27/7/16
GSK Manufacturing Investment

Business ups and downs don’t usually grab my attention. However, in a quiet summer so far, for chemical structures and new drugs, some good news on major pharma investment.

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/business-36901027

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26/7/16
News on Tagrisso (osimertinib)

Positive phase III clinical results for EGFR inhibitor Tagrisso, from AstraZeneca.

http://www.fiercebiotech.com/biotech/astrazeneca-s-lung-cancer-drug-hits-phiii-target-wants-to-move-up-pathway?utm_

Structure can be found on this link

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Osimertinib

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6/7/16
Gene c-Abl being linked to Parkinson’s Disease

Early days in this research, but possible links of c-Abl to Parkinson’s Disease.

http://www.fiercebiotech.com/research/johns-hopkins-researchers-target-parkinson-s-disease-protein-fda-approved-oncology-drug?mkt_

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5/7/16
News on Epclusa

The FDA has approved an “all genotype hepatitis C” drug – Epclusa. The drug is a combination of a new compound and an existing substance.

http://www.fiercepharma.com/pharma/gilead-s-advances-hep-c-franchise-epclusa-pricing-it-at-a-discount?mkt

Both structures in the combo med can be found here:

https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/91885554#section=Top

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4/7/16
News on Niraparib

Niraparib is a poly ADP ribose polymerase (PARP) inhibitor, under investigation for ovarian cancer. Reports here of a positive phase III clinical study.

http://uk.reuters.com/article/us-tesaro-study-idUKKCN0ZF167

Chemical structure can be found here:

http://www.chemspider.com/Chemical-Structure.24531930.html

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1/7/16
News on Ocrevus (ocrelizumab)

Ocrelizumab is an anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody, for the treatment of multiple sclerosis.

http://www.fiercebiotech.com/biotech/roche-s-new-multiple-sclerosis-drug-set-for-early-fda-approval?mkt_

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30/6/16
Helium

The discovery of a Helium field in the Tanzanian East African Rift Valley, could ease fears of a shortage for scientific requirements e.g. MRI and NMR usage.

http://www.independent.co.uk/news/science/helium-shortage-could-be-solved-by-new-life-saving-discovery-a7106906.html

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29/6/16
News on Lutathera

Lutathera is a Lu-177-labeled somatostatin analogue peptide, for the treatment of gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumours. You may, like me, need to look up the element Lutetium!

http://www.fiercebiotech.com/biotech/advanced-accelerator-applications-gains-fda-priority-review-for-cancer-med?mkt_

I found this slide deck useful in understanding the compound, slide 23 structure E and slide 26.

http://www.snm.org/docs/mwm13/Presentations/Thursday/Novel%20Radionuclide%20Therapies%20-%20Erik%20Mittra.pdf

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28/6/16
New Hypothesis for Parkinson Disease

New research is proposing the disease is caused by a problem with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) association with mitochondria, via a protein called mitofusin. This excessive association giving rise to stress in the ER and generating misfolded proteins, ultimately leading to cell death.

http://www.independent.co.uk/life-style/health-and-families/health-news/parkinsons-disease-cure-breakthrough-leicester-university-a7098106.html

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27/6/16
News on Denosumab

Denosumab is an antibody to a cell surface protein called RANK. Rank has now been identified as a biomarker on precancerous cells in tissue with an inherited BRCA1 gene mutation.

http://www.fiercebiotech.com/research/existing-drug-could-prevent-brca1-positive-breast-cancer?utm_

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24/6/16
News on a Zika Vaccine

From a virus few knew about at the beginning of the year; we now have a vaccine entering human clinical trials.

http://uk.reuters.com/article/us-health-zika-inovio-pharma-idUKKCN0Z619C

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23/6/16
News on Omadacycline

Positive phase III results, from the clinic, for Omadacycline; potentially a new antibiotic.

http://www.fiercebiotech.com/biotech/paratek-shares-bounce-after-matching-pfizer-antibiotic-study?mkt

Structure on this link:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Omadacycline

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22/6/16
Stellar Propylene Oxide

It may just be me, but this article is second guessing whether the propylene oxide detected; is R or S or racemic or anywhere in between.

http://uk.reuters.com/article/us-space-molecule-idUKKCN0Z0281

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21/6/16
News on Victoza

Positive news on Victoza for cardiac risks. The injectable Type 2 diabetes drug Victoza; is a glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) mimic; stimulating insulin production. Victoza is a peptide with 97% homology to endogenous human GLP-1.

http://www.fiercepharma.com/pharma/novo-nordisk-s-diabetes-med-victoza-chops-cardiovascular-risks-by-13?utm_

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20/6/16
Acute Myeloid Leukaemia is more than 11 Different Cancers

As I blogged the other day, cancers should be identified by their DNA mutation leading to tumours, rather than the originating tissue. Here another article recognises this to be pertinent.

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/health-36479291

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17/6/16
Reports on a 13 Year Study in Multiple Sclerosis

A small clinical trial, over a 13-year period, observed the effect of resetting the rogue immune system back to t=0, with significant results.

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/health-36490315

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16/6/16
News on Baricitinib

A oral, dual JAK1/JAK2 inhibitor from Eli Lilly and Incyte, for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, shows continued benefit in an extended clinical study.

http://www.fiercebiotech.com/biotech/lilly-incyte-s-ra-drug-continues-to-prevent-joint-damage-long-term-trial?mkt_

Structure on link:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Baricitinib

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15/6/16
News on Erenumab

Monoclonal antibody, from Amgen – Erenumab, shows positive phase II clinical results in treating chronic migraine. Erenumab is an antibody raised to Calcitonin-Gene-Related-Peptide (CGRP) receptor.

http://www.amgen.com/media/news-releases/2016/06/amgen-announces-erenumab-amg-334-significantly-reduces-patients-monthly-migraine-days-in-phase-2-study-for-the-prevention-of-chronic-migraine/

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14/6/16
News on Sirukumab

Sirukumab is a monoclonal antibody against interleukin 6 (IL-6), being developed to treat rheumatoid arthritis. The phase III study demonstrates prevention of joint damage.

http://uk.reuters.com/article/us-johnson-johnson-gsk-arthritis-study-idUKKCN0YT2OT

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13/6/16
News on Tafinlar and Mekinist Combination

In R&D cancer is more frequently described today by the mutations leading to the tumour; rather than the originating tissue type. In this report “BRAF V600E-mutation positive non-small cell lung cancer” shows promising response to Tafinlar and Mekinist combination.

http://uk.reuters.com/article/us-health-cancer-novartis-idUKKCN0YS1MI

Structures can be found here:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dabrafenib

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trametinib

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10/6/16
Proposed Names For Four New Elements

Nihonium (Nh)
Moscovium (Mc)
Tennessine (Ts)
Oganesson (Og).

As an organic chemist I have a slight issue with the symbol for Tennessine: TsOH = tennessine hydroxide or tosic acid? Although there is the precedent of Ac for Actinium.

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-36485631

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9/6/16
News on Palbociclib

New breast cancer treatment, Palbociclib, shows dramatic effect on survival.

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/health-36459682

Chemical structure can be found here.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Palbociclib

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8/6/16
Progress in Pancreatic Cancer Treatment

A new combination of drugs, gemcitabine and capecitabine, appears to be giving patients a better survival rate.

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/health-36444413

Chemical Structures:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gemcitabine

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Capecitabine

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7/6/16
Cancer Treatment Progress

The annual big cancer conference is underway. Expect lots of companies to make releases. Here is an overview by the BBC.

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/health-36447289

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6/6/16
News On Migalastat

Approval in Europe for Migalastat, to treat Fabry disease.

http://www.fiercebiotech.com/blocked-u-s-amicus-gets-a-green-light-for-fabry-drug-europe?mkt_

Structure can be found here:

https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/176077#section=2D-Structure

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3/6/16
Comet Not Yet A Chemical Catalogue!

The natural world does not have a chemical catalogue to choose from, they have to come from or be made somewhere. In this article organic matter has been identified on a comet.

http://uk.reuters.com/article/us-space-comet-life-idUKKCN0YI28B

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2/6/16
News on Filgotinib

Listened to the R&D of Filgotinib at the recent Kinase 2016 conference. In this article news on its planned phase III clinical development.

http://www.fiercebiotech.com/biotech/galapagos-gilead-include-high-dose-phiii-ra-trial-following-talk-fda

Chemical structure on this link:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Filgotinib

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1/6/16
Is Gene Therapy about to become Mainstream?

Gene therapy promised a lot 30 years ago, when I was contemplating a career in drug research or medicine. Today we have a few approved therapies from so called biotech sector, but now “big pharma” in GSK are well in the area.

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-36400206

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31/5/16
First Case of Bacteria Resistant to ALL Antibiotics

Title says it all, especially as to why this is important.

http://uk.reuters.com/article/us-health-superbug-idUKKCN0YH2KT

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27/5/16
News on Gazyva

A monoclonal antibody therapy from Genentech, Gazyva, shows promise in a phased III clinical trial for follicular lymphoma.

http://www.businesswire.com/news/home/20160526006578/en/Genentech%E2%80%99s-Gazyva%C2%AE-Showed-Superior-Progression-Free-Survival-Compared

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23/5/16
News on Vyxeos

A liposomal, injectable, formulation of 2 known anticancer agents, in a specific dose combination.

http://www.fiercebiotech.com/biotech/fda-grants-breakthrough-status-for-celator-s-blood-cancer-drug?mkt

http://www.celatorpharma.com/#!vyxeos/c22gy

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20/5/16
News on pembrolizumab (Keytruda)

This antibody, targeting the PD-1 receptor is already being used in patients. This report highlights new benefits for those with melanoma.

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/health-36304018

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19/5/16
News on Tecentriq

Tecentriq is a PD-L1 inhibitor by Roche. It has been approved for bladder cancer by the FDA. Further studies are ongoing after this accelerated approval and in other cancer types.

http://uk.reuters.com/article/us-roche-fda-idUKKCN0Y92GL

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17/5/16
A New Antibiotic – Delafloxacin

It appears a new oral antibiotic is nearing the market after a reported successful phase III clinical trial.

http://www.fiercebiotech.com/melinta-eyes-a-commercial-launch-for-new-antibiotic-after-phiii-success?mkt

Structure can be found on wiki link.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Delafloxacin

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16/5/16
NLRC5

Down regulation of NLRC5 in tumours appears to prevents their oncoproteins being processed and presented by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I, thus evading being flagged for removal by the immune system.

http://www.fiercebiotech.com/research/mechanism-found-causes-cancer-cells-to-escape-from-immune-system?mkt

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12/5/16
Top1 inhibitor for Sepsis

Top1 Inhibitors shown to have benefit in sepsis.

http://www.fiercebiotech.com/research/cancer-drug-used-at-low-dose-can-protect-from-fatal-infections-mice?mkt_

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10/5/16
News on Tazemetostat

Tazemetostat is a first-in-class small molecule inhibitor of EZH2, by Epizyme. To begin further phase II clinical trials in 2016, including in mesothelioma.

http://www.fiercebiotech.com/biotech/fda-accepts-ind-app-for-epizyme-s-mesothelioma-drug?mkt_

Chemical structure on link below:

http://chem.sis.nlm.nih.gov/chemidplus/rn/1403254-99-8

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9/5/16
News on Regorafenib

Positive phase III trial results reported in liver cancer patients. Structure on Wikipedia link, despite all the halogens still below 500MW.

http://uk.reuters.com/article/us-bayer-regorafenib-phaseiii-idUKKCN0XV28O

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Regorafenib

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6/5/16
News on Riluzole

Riluzole is reported to restore expression of a gene called EAAT2, which removes glutamate from nerve fibres. Glutamate appears to damage neurons, so removal should improve memory. Chemical structure on the Wikipedia link.

http://www.fiercebiotech.com/research/rockefeller-scientists-start-testing-glutamate-clearing-drug-alzheimer-s-patients?mkt_

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Riluzole

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5/5/16
Large Genome Study of Breast Cancers

A large study of the genome, of some 560 different, breast cancer patients biopsies. Known oncogenes were found and some new ones identified. I advise reading the original Nature papers linked in the report below.

http://www.cancerresearchuk.org/about-us/cancer-news/news-report/2016-05-03-dna-analysis-brings-scientists-step-closer-to-complete-picture-of-breast-cancer

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4/5/16
Hsp90 Inhibitors Extend to Prostate Cancers

No specific Hsp90 inhibitor is identified in this report, from the ICR.

http://www.icr.ac.uk/news-archive/new-cancer-drugs-could-treat-lethal-resistant-prostate-cancers

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3/5/16
News on Pimavanserin

A new antipsychotic, with a new mode of action, gets FDA approval for use in Parkinson’s Disease.

http://www.fiercebiotech.com/fda-oks-a-breakthrough-antipsychotic-from-acadia-for-parkinson-s-patients?utm

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pimavanserin

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27/4/16
Insight into Neurodegenerative Diseases

Here is reported a fundamental insight into the neurodegenerative diseases of Huntingdon’s, Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s. Metabolites are shown to accumulate and have a toxic effect and that up regulating the kynurenine pathway offers some protection.

http://medicalxpress.com/news/2016-04-advance-parkinson-alzheimer.html

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26/4/16
Type 1 Diabetes

A report into understanding of the immune systems role in type 1 diabetes.

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/health-36113773

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25/4/16
Atom Efficiency

In synthetic chemistry you always look to avoid unnecessary steps e.g. protection/de-protection or activation of a functional group. Here is a report on dehyrogenative cross coupling – no activation. Could be the ultimate in atom efficient synthesis.

http://www.rsc.org/chemistryworld/2016/04/dehydrogenative-cross-coupling-unactivated-phenols-amines-organic-matter

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22/4/16
Final Report on Fatal Clinical Trial

Reading the reporting of the report and not the headline is always a good thing to do, if you cannot read the report itself. However I will stop there, as in the fatal trial; ”translation mistakes” occurred in the documents and the original report is in French.

http://www.fiercebiotech.com/cro/%E2%80%98toxic-compound%E2%80%99-gains-final-blame-french-trial-disaster?mkt_

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/BIA_10-2474

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21/4/16
Small Step Towards Next Generation Antibiotics?

A bacterial enzyme, MraY, “responsible for building up the bacterial wall” has been crystallised for the first time, whilst bound to the natural inhibitor muraymycin. Great play is made of non-lock and key binding, but that was out the window when I was an undergraduate (25 years ago) and replaced with induced fit binding.

http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2016-04/du-sps041316.php

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18/4/16
Known Carcinogen / Probable Carcinogen

This report is interesting in how carcinogenicity is assessed. The IARC designation is one of the health bodies that leads to carcinogenicity statements on MSDS / SDS, received with purchased chemicals. As a chemist, I work quite often with materials that are a) known carcinogens; b) probable carcinogens. When a new compound is synthesised for the first time, an assessment is made by the chemist, based on known compounds, of the probable risks / reactivity / instability. These then dictate the precautions the chemist takes, moving forward with a programme of work.

http://www.reuters.com/investigates/special-report/health-who-iarc/

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14/4/16
Synthetic Approaches To The 2014 New Drugs

I commend this +40 page review, in the journal Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry to my readers.
BMC (2016) vol 24, issue 9, p1937-1980. Probably not one to read in one sitting!

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13/4/16
AZ/Lilly Joint BACE Inhibitor Moves To Phase III

Inhibition of BACE is still the main focus to treat Alzheimer’s disease. AZD3293 which had been on hold is now progressing to phase III clinical trials.

http://www.fiercebiotech.com/r-d/astrazeneca-eli-lilly-move-closely-watched-bace-alzheimer-s-trial

Chemical structure can be found on this link:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/AZD3293

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12/4/16
Vitamin D3

A report here, on improving heart function by administration of Vitamin D3. The D vitamins are synthesised, in the body, by the action of UV rays on 7-dehydrocholesterol.

http://www.independent.co.uk/news/science/vitamin-d-heart-function-failure-breakthrough-klaus-witte-leeds-a6968841.html

Vitamin D3 structure can be found on this link

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cholecalciferol

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11/4/16
Photo-Synthesis

Synthesis of ribose and other “simple” building blocks of life, from an artificial comet and UV irradiation.

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-35991312

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7/4/16
CETP inhibitors

Whilst this report does not look good for the hypothesis of CETP inhibition; it does show the power of testing in humans, in well-designed trials, with clear outcomes.

http://www.fiercebiotech.com/story/failure-lillys-evacetrapib-may-prove-final-nail-coffin-cetp/2016-04-04?utm

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4/4/16
News on Pimavanserin

News here on Pimavanserin, with what seems to be cost/benefit/risk discussion in a patient population with little options.

http://www.fiercebiotech.com/story/fda-adcomm-experts-acknowledge-problems-give-thumbs-acadias-parkinsons-anti/2016-03-29?utm_

Structure can be found on this link

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pimavanserin

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1/4/16
Anti-Migraine

There are a number of new therapies for treating migraine currently in the clinic, aimed at calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP). Here is news on ALD403, phase IIb readout. ALD403 is an injectable antibody to CGRP.

http://www.fiercebiotech.com/story/alder-bags-promising-migraine-data-frenzied-race-pioneering-cgrp-drug-appro/2016-03-28?utm_

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31/3/16
Drug Delivery?

Could a protein foam become a drug delivery formulation? Initial thoughts are for treating burns, where the protection of the skin is already compromised.

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/health-35869662

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30/3/16
CRISPR Technology to Splice out HIV

News here, on the utilization of the CRISPR technology, to excise HIV DNA, from human cell lines thus possibly a cure for HIV/AIDS?

http://www.templehealth.org/content/news.htm?view=34&inCtx5news_id=1800&inCtx4pg=0&news=2?utm_

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29/3/16
News on Taltz

Taltz, a competitor to Stelara (Johnson & Johnson), is an injectable antibody for psoriasis from Lilly.

http://www.fiercepharmamarketing.com/story/lillys-new-psoriasis-med-taltz-sets-head-head-novartis-cosentyx/2016-03-23?utm_

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24/3/16
News on Obesity Pathways

Mass media informs us constantly that obesity is the next epidemic to hit humankind. In this article, insight has been gained into the potential mechanisms of “feeling full”.

http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2016-03/jhm-pcc031416.php

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21/3/16
News on Stelara

Stelara is a human monoclonal antibody, used to treat psoriasis. Now a phase III study has shown benefit in Crohn’s Disease.

http://uk.reuters.com/article/us-johnson-johnson-crohns-stelara-idUKKCN0WK1OR

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18/3/16
Double Teaming Cancer Drugs

Redundancy in living systems is the bane of drug research. You block a disease causing pathway and the backup system kicks in. This is also true in cancer. This report is on simultaneously hitting both pathways.

http://www.fiercebiotechresearch.com/story/mit-team-demonstrates-potential-cancer-combo-kinase-inhibitors-mice/2016-03-16?utm

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17/3/16
News on CPX-351

CPX-351 is a liposomal preparation of 2 anti-cancer drugs, for injection. Fierce report describes nanotech, are liposomes considered nanotech? Best to read the PDF linked at the end of the Fierce report.

http://www.fiercebiotech.com/story/tiny-celator-surges-promising-cancer-data-and-preps-fda-submission/2016-03-14?utm_

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cytarabine

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Daunorubicin

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16/3/16
Nano delivery of Doxorubicin

An interesting article on the possibilities of a new dosing regimen. How or why cancer cells would preferentially take up these nanoparticles is not discussed.

http://www.independent.co.uk/life-style/health-and-families/health-news/cancer-treatment-using-nanotechnology-tested-with-astounding-results-a6930841.html

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15//3/16
Positive Phase III Trial in Dravet Syndrome

Epidiolex (cannabidiol), a cannabis derived treatment, has shown promise in placebo controlled phase III clinical trial, to treat Dravet syndrome, a type of epilepsy.

http://uk.reuters.com/article/us-gw-pharma-cannabis-idUKKCN0WG16Z

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cannabidiol

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11//3/16
Insight into Derek Lowe

Many medicinal chemists will be familiar with Derek Lowe and his blog on the pharma industry. I hadn’t realised he had been blogging for 14 years.

http://www.forbes.com/sites/davidkroll/2016/03/07/why-27-years-without-an-fda-approved-drug-is-still-a-major-medical-contribution/#34eecf846f47

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10/3/16
Images of Science

Is it a cause for concern that the images are all biological? None are definitively chemistry or physics. May be chemists and physicist don’t take enough photographs of their work.

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/in-pictures-35744907

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9/3/16
A Veterinary Medicine – Sarolaner

In Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters (2016) issue 7, pages 1831–1835. This letter on the discovery of Sarolaner has some interesting spirocyclic heterocycles.

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8/3/16
Solid Tumour Vaccine Trial

The hapten in the vaccine is a fragment of human telomerase reverse transcriptase(hTERT). hTERT elongates the telomeres of the chromosomes, leading to the cells becoming immortal.

http://www.independent.co.uk/news/science/british-woman-becomes-one-of-the-first-cancer-patients-to-be-injected-with-new-tumour-destroying-a6905506.html

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7/3/16
Zika Virus linked to Guillain-Barre Syndrone

Further conditions are now being linked to the Zika virus. Guillain-Barre is a condition where the body’s immune system attacks the nerves. The majority of patients with Guillain-Barre do recover, although some do die, of which I have personal experience.

http://www.independent.co.uk/life-style/health-and-families/health-news/zika-virus-guillain-barre-syndrome-scientists-find-direct-evidence-of-link-a6903916.html

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3/3/16
Small and Achiral is Beautiful

I commend readers to take a look at Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters, Volume 26, Issue 6, Pages 1503–1507.

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2/3/16
News on Xeljanz

An extended release formulation sees a move from twice daily dosing, to once a day dosing. In medicinal chemistry projects, drug designers are encouraged to design a drug molecule that is intrinsically a once a day therapy, without to resorting to formulation tricks.

http://www.fiercepharma.com/story/short-label-expansions-pfizer-nabs-fda-ok-new-once-daily-xeljanz/2016-02-25?utm

Chemical structure on link below

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tofacitinib

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1/3/16
Rose Bengal to Treat Melanoma

A formulation of Rose Bengal is under investigation as a treatment for melanoma. Its action was observed when during a study with lasers against cancer. The positive results were observed with Rose Bengal alone! Looking at the structure on Aldrich link, would you follow this up from a high throughput assay readout?

http://uk.reuters.com/article/us-cancer-provectus-idUKKCN0VZ0IB

http://www.sigmaaldrich.com/catalog/product/aldrich/330000?lang=en&region=GB&gclid=CLSRo57vlcsCFRS6GwodUU4Odw

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29/2/16
Over Diagnosis?

In my career I have worked on asthma projects. As a medicinal chemist you try to design safe efficacious drugs which will alleviate a disease. However in the clinic, you rely on doctors to correctly identify that disease and then prescribe the appropriate drug. This report questions the doctor’s diagnosis.

http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/health/news/12173687/Half-a-million-children-with-asthma-may-not-actually-have-condition.html

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27/2/16
Chemotherapy Dosing Regime

A new dosing regimen for chemotherapy drugs, to treat cancers, is discussed in the article below. Advantages of longer term benefits, in terms of tumour regrowth and side effects should both be of benefit to patients.

http://www.independent.co.uk/life-style/health-and-families/health-news/cancer-low-doses-of-chemotherapy-may-control-disease-more-effectively-a6893701.html

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26/2/16
Skin Ageing

Nice fundamental understanding of how the human body works. However is growing old a disease / condition that needs intervention therapy? Certainly does not motivate this medicinal chemist.

http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/science/science-news/12173587/Anti-ageing-breakthrough-as-scientists-find-enzyme-for-youthful-skin.html

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23/2/16
Selective Cancer Cell Uptake

As a medicinal chemist, you are aware that the compounds you design have to get into the body and more often than not, into cells to have the desired beneficial effect. Here is a report on targeting liver cancer cells based on their uptake of LDL cholesterol, to further their growth. By attaching anti-cancer agents to the LDL, researchers have selectively targeted the cancer cells.

http://www.fiercebiotechresearch.com/press-releases/nanoparticle-therapy-uses-ldl-and-fish-oil-kills-liver-cancer-cells

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22/2/16
News on Zurampic

Gout is a painful condition, where uric acid crystallises in the joints, making them inflamed. Zurampic, an inhibitor of uric acid transport, has received approval in the EU and US.

http://www.fiercepharma.com/story/astrazeneca-bags-eu-approval-gout-drug-zurampic-it-eyes-500m-sales/2016-02-19?utm_

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lesinurad

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17/2/16
Priming the immune System in Leukaemia

Leukaemia patients natural killer T-cells have been harvested, modified in vitro with chimeric antigens and then returned to the patient. The results in this early study, in real patients, has been remarkable. This is a priming of the immune system, to recognise the Leukaemia as rogue and despatch.

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/health-35586834

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16/2/16
News on HTL9936

A positive phase Ib and move to Phase II clinical trials, for HTL9936 from Heptares. Early days but seems to overcome adverse effects ,that have dogged other in this field.

http://www.prnewswire.co.uk/news-releases/heptares-announces-positive-results-from-phase-1b-clinical-trial-with-htl9936-a-first-in-class-selective-muscarinic-m1-receptor-agonist-for-improving-cognition-in-dementia-and-schizophrenia-568277261.html

Closest I could find to a disclosed structure for HTL9936:

https://newdrugapprovals.org/2014/05/05/htl-9936-is-a-selective-muscarinic-m1-agonist-designed-to-improve-cognitive-function-in-patients-with-ad-and-other-diseases/

Or the journal “Drugs of the Future” 201, p81-91.

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10/2/16
Combination Benefit

Often combination treatment regimens are introduced, once a drug has been launched as single therapy. Here is report of a Phase Ib study for a cancer combo, where the 2 parts are still to launch. The benefits, as reported, do appear better than single therapy. Both agents are monoclonal antibodies.

http://www.businesswire.com/news/home/20160207005035/en/ASTRAZENECA’S-COMBINATION-DURVALUMAB-TREMELIMUMAB-SHOWS-CLINICAL-ACTIVITY

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9/2/16
Iron Catalysed Deuteration and Tritiation

Having worked in a “labelled chemistry” lab, albeit only on a 6 month secondment, this system adds another method to the arsenal of compound labeling. Indeed the paper is cited as a news article of Feb 2016 issue of Chemistry and Industry magazine.

http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v529/n7585/full/nature16464.html

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5/2/16
Solvent Facilitated Hiding of Hydrophilicity

This article appeared online in Dec2015, but I picked it up in the hardcopy magazine Feb2016. Intra molecular H-bonding is a well-known way for molecules to hide their hydrophilicity, in order to pass through lipid membranes. In this article a “solvent” water molecule is shown to participate in the hiding of hydrophilicity.

http://www.rsc.org/chemistryworld/2015/12/drug-development-psychoactive-substance-cocaine-blood-brain-barrier

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4/2/16
Drug Fraud

This article appeared online in Dec2015, but I picked it up in the hardcopy magazine Feb2016. I know from scribbling notes fast at scientific meetings, before disseminating learnings, to always double check key structures are accurate. It would appear to be a case of needing to check incoming chemicals to be what they say they are. More so for the new / more obscure suppliers.

http://www.rsc.org/chemistryworld/2015/12/pfizer-bogus-bosutinib-isomer-fraud-leukaemia-drug

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3/2/16
Psychoactive Substances Act 2016

I blogged about this in the planning stage last year. Now new legislation on so called “legal highs” to come into effect in April 2016. It seems, if you understand Parliamentary papers, that legitimate scientific use is permitted.

https://www.gov.uk/government/collections/psychoactive-substances-bill-2015

http://www.rsc.org/chemistryworld/2016/02/psychoactive-substances-legal-highs-uk-law-approved

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28/1/16
Multiple Sclerosis – Phenytoin

Reports of Phenytoin (epileptic seizure drug) preventing nerve damage, particularly optic nerve.

http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/health/news/12120567/Cheap-epilepsy-drug-could-prevent-nerve-damage-in-Multiple-Sclerosis.html

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phenytoin

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27/1/16
Multiple Sclerosis – stem cell treatment

Multiple Sclerosis occurs when a patient’s immune system goes rogue and attacks the myelin cells around the nerves. In this treatment, stem cells are harvested from the patient before a bout of chemotherapy.

Click here to see earlier blog posts, from 2015.